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  6. DRF实战之自定义返回响应

DRF实战之自定义返回响应

自定义返回响应

目前我们返回的数据样式是这样

{
    "next": "http://127.0.0.1:8000/api/v1/games/?cursor=cD0x",
    "previous": null,
    "results": [
        {
            "id": 1,
            "name": "老马",
            "status": 0
        }
    ]
}

{
    "id": 1,
    "name": "老马",
    "status": 0
}

还是那句话,返回这样格式的数据,对于移动端是不友好的,所以我们需要自定义返回消息,返回的结构如下

{
    "code": 200,
    "message": "success",
    "data": [
        {
            "id": 1,
            "name": "老马",
            "status": 0
        }
    ],
    "next": "http://127.0.0.1:8000/api/v1/games/?cursor=cD0x",
    "previous": null
}

或者

{
    "code": 200,
    "message": "success",
    "data": {
        "id": 1,
        "name": "老马",
        "status": 0
    }
}

自定义JSONResponse

创建一个custom_json_response.py文件

from django.utils import six
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.serializers import Serializer

class JsonResponse(Response):
    """
    An HttpResponse that allows its data to be rendered into
    arbitrary media types.
    """

    def __init__(self, data=None, code=None, msg=None,
                 status=None,
                 template_name=None, headers=None,
                 exception=False, content_type=None, **kwargs):
        """
        Alters the init arguments slightly.
        For example, drop 'template_name', and instead use 'data'.
        Setting 'renderer' and 'media_type' will typically be deferred,
        For example being set automatically by the `APIView`.
        """
        super(Response, self).__init__(None, status=status)

        if isinstance(data, Serializer):
            msg = (
                'You passed a Serializer instance as data, but '
                'probably meant to pass serialized `.data` or '
                '`.error`. representation.'
            )
            raise AssertionError(msg)

        self.data = {"code": code, "message": msg, "data": data}
        self.data.update(kwargs) 
        self.template_name = template_name
        self.exception = exception
        self.content_type = content_type

        if headers:
            for name, value in six.iteritems(headers):
                self[name] = value

自定义ModelViewSet

创建custom_model_view_set.py文件

from rest_framework import status
from rest_framework import viewsets
from .custom_json_response import JsonResponse


class CustomModelViewSet(viewsets.ModelViewSet):

    def create(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        serializer = self.get_serializer(data=request.data)
        serializer.is_valid(raise_exception=True)
        self.perform_create(serializer)
        headers = self.get_success_headers(serializer.data)
        return JsonResponse(data=serializer.data, msg="success", code=201, status=status.HTTP_201_CREATED,
                            headers=headers)

    def list(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        queryset = self.filter_queryset(self.get_queryset())
        page = self.paginate_queryset(queryset)
        if page is not None:
            serializer = self.get_serializer(page, many=True)
            return self.get_paginated_response(serializer.data)

        serializer = self.get_serializer(queryset, many=True)
        return JsonResponse(data=serializer.data, code=200, msg="success", status=status.HTTP_200_OK)

    def retrieve(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        instance = self.get_object()
        serializer = self.get_serializer(instance)
        return JsonResponse(data=serializer.data, code=200, msg="success", status=status.HTTP_200_OK)

    def update(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        partial = kwargs.pop('partial', False)
        instance = self.get_object()
        serializer = self.get_serializer(instance, data=request.data, partial=partial)
        serializer.is_valid(raise_exception=True)
        self.perform_update(serializer)

        if getattr(instance, '_prefetched_objects_cache', None):
            # If 'prefetch_related' has been applied to a queryset, we need to
            # forcibly invalidate the prefetch cache on the instance.
            instance._prefetched_objects_cache = {}

        return JsonResponse(data=serializer.data, msg="success", code=200, status=status.HTTP_200_OK)

    def destroy(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        instance = self.get_object()
        self.perform_destroy(instance)
        return JsonResponse(data=[], code=204, msg="delete resource success", status=status.HTTP_204_NO_CONTENT)

自定义分页类需要修改

from rest_framework.pagination import PageNumberPagination, LimitOffsetPagination, CursorPagination
from .custom_json_response import JsonResponse
from rest_framework import status


class MyPageNumberPagination(PageNumberPagination):
    page_size = 1
    max_page_size = 1
    page_size_query_param = 'size'
    page_query_param = 'page'

    def get_paginated_response(self, data):
        return JsonResponse(data=data, code=200, msg="success", status=status.HTTP_200_OK, next=self.get_next_link(),
                            previous=self.get_previous_link(), count=self.page.paginator.count)


class MyPageNumberPagination(LimitOffsetPagination):
    default_limit = 1
    limit_query_param = 'limit'
    offset_query_param = 'offset'
    max_limit = 2

    def get_paginated_response(self, data):
        return JsonResponse(data=data, code=200, msg="success", status=status.HTTP_200_OK, next=self.get_next_link(),
                            previous=self.get_previous_link(), count=self.count)


class MyPageNumberPagination(CursorPagination):
    cursor_query_param = 'cursor'
    page_size = 1
    ordering = 'id'
    page_size_query_param = 'size'
    max_page_size = 1

    def get_paginated_response(self, data):
        return JsonResponse(data=data, code=200, msg="success", status=status.HTTP_200_OK, next=self.get_next_link(),
                            previous=self.get_previous_link())

Generics

from rest_framework import status
from rest_framework import viewsets
from .custom_json_response import JsonResponse
from rest_framework import generics


class ListCreateAPIView(generics.ListCreateAPIView):

    def create(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        serializer = self.get_serializer(data=request.data)
        serializer.is_valid(raise_exception=True)
        self.perform_create(serializer)
        headers = self.get_success_headers(serializer.data)
        return JsonResponse(data=serializer.data, msg="success", code=201, status=status.HTTP_201_CREATED,
                            headers=headers)

    def list(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        queryset = self.filter_queryset(self.get_queryset())
        page = self.paginate_queryset(queryset)
        if page is not None:
            serializer = self.get_serializer(page, many=True)
            return self.get_paginated_response(serializer.data)

        serializer = self.get_serializer(queryset, many=True)
        return JsonResponse(data=serializer.data, code=200, msg="success", status=status.HTTP_200_OK)


class RetrieveUpdateDestroyAPIView(generics.RetrieveUpdateDestroyAPIView):

    def retrieve(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        instance = self.get_object()
        serializer = self.get_serializer(instance)
        return JsonResponse(data=serializer.data, code=200, msg="success", status=status.HTTP_200_OK)

    def update(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        partial = kwargs.pop('partial', False)
        instance = self.get_object()
        serializer = self.get_serializer(instance, data=request.data, partial=partial)
        serializer.is_valid(raise_exception=True)
        self.perform_update(serializer)

        if getattr(instance, '_prefetched_objects_cache', None):
            # If 'prefetch_related' has been applied to a queryset, we need to
            # forcibly invalidate the prefetch cache on the instance.
            instance._prefetched_objects_cache = {}

        return JsonResponse(data=serializer.data, msg="success", code=200, status=status.HTTP_200_OK)

    def destroy(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        instance = self.get_object()
        self.perform_destroy(instance)
        return JsonResponse(data=[], code=204, msg="delete resource success", status=status.HTTP_204_NO_CONTENT)
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